عوامل و مولفه‌های طراحی محیطی موثر در ایجاد مکان‌های خلاق شهری مطالعه موردی: کلانشهر اهواز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه شهرسازی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مرودشت، ایران

چکیده

در طول تاریخ آنچه موجب برداشتن گام­های بلند، به سوی کامیابی و تغییرات مثبت در شیوه زیست انسان­ها شده، برگرفته از اندیشه­ای تکامل یافته یعنی خلاقیت بوده است. خلاقیت در تمام ابعاد زندگی انسان نقش اساسی داشته و آن را تحت تاثیر خود قرار می­دهد. فضاهای شهری به عنوان محل پیوند نیروهای اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی و سیاسی و .. در بروز خلاقیت جایگاه ویژه­ای دارند. فضاهای شهری خلاق سرزندگی، پویایی، نشاط، جمعیت پذیری محیط شهری را به همراه داشته و زمینه بروز خلاقیت و نوآوری می­باشند. اینکه فضاهای خلاق شهری چگونه فضاهایی هستند و شاخص­ها و مولفه­های طراحانه؛ موثر در طراحی اینگونه فضاها کدامند؟ مسئله اصلی پژوهش حاضر می­باشد. در این راستا کلانشهر اهواز و فضاهای شهری به عنوان مطالعه موردی انتخاب گردید. پژوهش حاضر کاربردی و روش انجام آن نیر توصیفی-تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش 100 نفر از متخصصین، کارشناسان و صاحبنظران حوزه مطالعات شهری که با شهر اهواز آشنایی کاملی داشته و در این شهر مشغول به ارائه خدمات می­باشند انتخاب گردید. از روش نمونه­گیری طبقه­ای و هدفمند جهت توزیع پرسشنامه­های پژوهش استفاد شد. ضریب پایایی پرسشنامه براساس ضریب آلفای کرونباخ برابر 0.974 و در سطح عالی ارزیابی شد. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات به کمک نرم افزار SPSS و  مدل تحلیل عاملی و آزمون کفایت نمونه بارتلت انجام شد. یافته­های پژوهش نشان می­دهد 9 عامل به تنهایی قادرندبالغ بر 74درصد از واریانس کل را تبیین نمایند. از بین عوامل شناسایی شده دخیل دادن تاکید بر هویت سرمایه اجتماعی و برنامه ریزی فرهنگی در طراحی، تاکید بر ویژگی­های طبیعی و فرهنگی در راستای برانگیختن خلاقیت و تاکید بر نمادسازی با محوریت گفتمان اجتماعی به تنهایی بالغ بر 49 درصد از واریانش کل عوامل طراحانه موثر در بروز خلاقیت مکانی را تبین می­نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

factors and components of effective environmental design in creating creative urban spaces (case study: ahvaz)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nazanin yarahmadi 1
  • Mohammad Ali Khaliji 2
  • Mohammadreza Rezaei 3
1 ِDepartment of Urban Planning, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Urban planning, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Asisstant Professor , Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Throughout history, what has led to great strides toward success and positive change in human lifestyle has been derived from the evolved idea of creativity. Creativity plays an essential role in all aspects of human life and affects it. Urban spaces as a meeting place of social, economic, cultural and political forces, etc. have a special place in the emergence of creativity. Creative urban spaces bring vitality, dynamism, vitality, population to the urban environment and are the basis for creativity and innovation. How creative urban spaces are spaces and design features and components; What are the effects of designing such spaces? The main issue is the present study. In this regard, Ahvaz metropolis and urban spaces were selected as a case study. The present research is applied and its method is descriptive-analytical. The statistical population of the study was selected from 100 specialists, experts and pundits in the field of urban studies who are fully acquainted with the city of Ahvaz and are providing services in this city. Stratified and purposeful sampling method was used to distribute the research questionnaires. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient was equal to 0.974 and was evaluated at an excellent level. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and factor analysis model and Bartlett sample adequacy test. Findings show that 9 factors alone can explain up to 74% of the total variance. Among the identified factors, including emphasis on the identity of social capital and cultural planning in design, emphasis on natural and cultural features in order to stimulate creativity and emphasis on symbolism with a focus on social discourse alone amounting to 49% of the total variance of design factors Explain the effect of spatial creativity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Creative City
  • social creativity
  • urban places
  • Ahvaz

1.       Aftab A, Nazmfar H, Ghafarigilandeh A, Mousavi M. Planning and Formulating Solutions for the Realization of Creative Cities in Iran (Case Study: Urmia City). GeoRes. 2018; 32 (4) :188-209 [in Persian]

2.       Amelhelali, B., Zarabadi, Z., Dolatabadi, F. (2019). Exploring the foundations of creating a creative city in areas of Neyshabur city. , 10(38), 123-132. [in Persian]

3.       akiuchi, Emiko (2015). culturally creative cities in Japan: Reality and Prospects, city, culture and Society Volume 7, Issue 2, PP:1-8.

4.       Bianchini, F and ch. Landry,.(1994).The creative city. Published by Comedia .May 1994

5.       Borén, T., & Young, C. (2017). Artists and creative city policy: Resistance, the mundane and engagement in Stockholm, Sweden. City, Culture and Society, 8, 21-26 .[DOI:10.1016/j.ccs.2016.05.002]

6.       Cohen, B. (2006): “Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability”, Technology in Society 28, pp: 63-80;

7.       Comunian, Roberta (2011). Rethinking the Creative City: The Role of Complexity, Networks and Interactions in the Urban Creative Economy, Urban Studies, 48 (6) 1157-1179. DOI: 10.1177/0042098010370626.

8.       Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using spss. London : sage pub.

9.       Florida, R.(2012): The rise of the creative class: and how it 's transforming work, leisure, community, and everyday life, Newyork: basic books

10.    Florida, R., (2002), The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, New York: Basic Books (December 23, 2003).

11.    Florida, Richard (2005): “Cities and creative class “. Routladge. UAS.

12.    Girard, L. F., Baycan, T., & Nijkamp, P (2011). Sustainable city and creativity: promoting creative urban initiatives. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd

13.    Goldberg-Miller, S. B. D. (2018). Keeping creativity downtown: Policy learning from San Francisco, Seattle, and Vancouver for municipal cultural planning in Toronto. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 48(3), 170-190. [DOI:10.1080/10632921.2017.1422834].

14.    gharehbaglou, M., Kargar, T. (2017). New Insight into the Creative Urban Clusters (The potentials of joint space between Naqhsh- e Jahan Square and the Art University of Isfahan as an attractive place for the creative class). The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-e Nazar, 13(45), 43-60. [in Persian]

15.    Ghorbani R, Hossein Abadi S, Toorani A. Creative cities: as cultural approach in urban development. Arid Regions Geographic Studies. 2013; 3 (11) :1-18[in Persian]

16.    Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E. & Tatham, R.L. (1990). Multivariate Data Analysis, New York: Macmillan publishing company.

17.    Hall, Peter.(2000): Creative Cities and Economic Development, Urban Studies, 37(4), pp:639-649.

18.    Irandoost, k. and Gholami, m. (2015). "Promoting the opportunity and participation of the people using the introduction of the general climate of the creative city." Art Journal, 5(48):48. [in Persian]

19.    ­ Jalali, A. and M. Pourjafar (2017). "Analytical and Critical Approach to the Role of Urban Management, Urban Planning and Urban Design in the Realization of Creative City, Journal of Development Strategy 50(50): 29-.[in Persian]

20.    Khorasgani, A. R., et al. (2011). "Review the Role of Social Diversity in Creating Innovative and Creative Cities (Case Study: Isfahan City)." Geography and Development Iranian Journal 9 (21): 159[in Persian]

21.    Kurtarir, E. and Cengiz, H.(2005), What are the Dynamics of Creative Economy in Istanbul? 41st Iso CaRP International Planning Congress.

22.    Landry, c. (2006). Lineages of the Creative City.reaserch journal for creative cities(RJCC), 1(1), 15-23.

23.    Landry, Ch. (1995). The creative city: a Toolkit   for Urban Innivators, London: Comedia/Earthscan

24.    Landry, Ch.,(2009). Lineages of the creative city, Research Jornal for creative city; (RJCC), Vol. I, No. I.

25.    leng, K. S. Badarulzaman, N, Samat, N. & Sheikh D, S. R (2014). “Capitalising on urban cultural resources for creative city development: A conceptual review and the way forward for Malaysia’s George Town”. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 10(5), 20-29.

26.    Liu, H.,(2015): Creative Industries and Urban Spatial Structure, Advances in Asian, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland

27.    Medeiros, N.(2005), Planning for Creativity: The Case Study of Winnipeg’s Exchange District, Master degree project. Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary.

28.    Mokhtari malekabadi, R., Saghaei, M., Iman, F. (2014). Classification of fifteen regions in Isfahan City based on the creative city Indicator Using models in regional planning. , 5(16), 105-120. [in Persian]

29.    Musterd, S. (2010).The Creative Cultural Knowledge City, Some Conditions. Paper presented at the University of Kaiserlautern

30.    Naghizadeh, M. and f. Habib (2018). "Evaluation of the Way Physical Components Impact the Enhancement of Children's Creativity in Play Grounds of Urban Parks." Journal of Iranian Architecture & Urbanism(JIAU) 9(1): 21-31. [in Persian]

31.    Paknezhad, N., Latifi, G. (2019). Explanation and Evaluation the Impact of Environmental Factors on the Formation of Behavioral Patterns in Urban Spaces (From Theory to Practice: Study of Tajrish Square). The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-e Nazar, 15(69), 51-66. doi: 10.22034/bagh.2019.82313[in Persian]

32.    Piran, M., Aghajani, T., Shoghi, B., Rezazadeh, A., Dehghan Najmabadi, A. (2012). The Effect of Social Capital on Employee's Creativity in the Foundry Industry of Iran (The Case of Kaveh Industrial Estate Employees). Journal of Innovation and Creativity in Human Science, 2(1), 163-183. [in Persian]

33.    ­Reckwitz, A., 2009, Die Selbstkultivierung der Stadt. Zur Transformation moderner Urbanitat in der "creative city", Ln: mittelweg, Vol. 36, No. 18, PP. 2-34.

34.    Rafieeyan, D., Shabani, M. (2015). Analysis of Urban Creativity Indices in Settlement System of Mazandaran Province. Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement, 5(16), 19-34. doi: 10.22111/gaij.2015.2160 [in Persian]

35.    Saif al-Dini, Frank, Mir, Muhammad, Pourshakhani, Zohr (2007). Geography, city and urban planning in The bedrock of globalization, Journal of Housing and Revolution, No. 110, page 10. [in Persian]

36.    Savini, Federico, Dembski, Sebastian (2016). Manufactures the creative city: Symbols and Politics of Amsterdam North, citie Volume 55, PP: 139-147.

37.    Shoshanah B.D., Miller, G., (2018). Creative city strategies on the municipal agenda in New York, City, Culture and Society, pp 1-12.

38.    Zanganeh Shahraki, S., Fotouhi Mehrabani, B., Porakrami, M., Soleimanzadeh, M. (2017). An Analysis of Tehran's Capabilities and Position in terms of Realization of the Concept of Creative City Compared with Other Cities of the World. Geography and Urban Space Development, 3(2), 69-85. doi: 10.22067/gusd.v3i2.50492 [in Persian]