عنوان مقاله [English]
Tourism development is considered as an essential element and one of the ways of villages salvation from poverty, migration, social problems, creating welfare, preserve of traditional culture characteristics, preserve of traditional texture of villages, cultural relations, and, preserve of natural sources. The purpose of this study is the analysis of the role of tourism in social development of Roudsar county's villages in last two decades. The present study was an applied research that has been done by descriptive-analytical method. The variables of this study were extracted through ingenious bases, discoveries of internal and external researchers, and also, primary field studies from studied areas. For collecting data, the documental sources and field studies were used in form of observation, interview, and questionnaire. The population of this study consisted of 27 villages of Rudsar county with tourism themes using Cochran method, and out of 4354 households, 384 rural households and 63 local managers were selected studied as the sample size. The face validity of the questionnaire was evaluated from the experts' point of view and the reliability of the variables was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient that was 0.82. The Spearman correlation coefficient test was used for quantitative data analysis. The results of the analysis in correlation coefficient test showed moderate limit that proved a positive effect of tourism development on economic indices, while the impact of tourism on occupation components, increasing income of rural households, second home construction, and decreasing unemployment with means 3.83, 3.61, 3.54 and 3.45 indicated the positive effects of tourism, respectively. Thus, creating occupation themes, increasing rural household income, preventing youth migration and differentiating economic activity in the region were among of the most important effects of tourism that were studied in economic development in the studied area.
Tourism in rural economic areas can have an effective role in sustainable tourism development and sustainability of rural communities, as tourism is one of the most effective areas in rural development that can provide opportunities and facilities for employment and income, and it plays an important role in raising the level of rural development. Therefore, it is essential to examine the economic development of rural areas and tourism, which can be a major step in the direction of rural development. Tourism target villages of Rudsar County like the general conditions of rural areas of the country, have many potential tourism opportunities in the natural, economic, social, and cultural areas. These attractions can provide the grounds for the expansion of various types of rural tourism.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of tourism in the economic development of the studied villages of this County. And, the question raised in this article is to what extent has tourism in the villages of Rudsar been able to contribute to the economic development of rural areas?
The present paper is a descriptive-analytical one and has applied purposes. Documentary (library) and survey methods have been used in gathering the data. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods such as correlation coefficient of SPSS software were used to analyze the data, to draw tables from Excel software and to draw GIS software map.
To determine the sample of statistics among the villages of Rudsar, 27 villages with tourism grounds were selected and the sample size was determined using Cochran method. Out of 4354 households, 384 rural households and 63 local managers (Dehyaran, Shura Council, and related experts) for knowing the study area were selected and questioned.
Tourism and rise in employment
In the villages of Rudsar during the last decade, tourism has increased employment. According to the statistics, employment in tourism sector in Rudsar, there are 438 people out of which 392 are men and 46 are women. In addition, there are 1245 employees in the handicrafts sector. Most of them are active in the Oshian village (Rudsar Governorate, 2019). Due to the boom in tourism and demand from tourists for home and land in the countryside, price has had a dramatic rise in recent years in all rural areas.
According to field studies, the highest increase in land prices in the two decades (1996-2016) between the villages under study were in the villages of Javaherdasht (600,000 Tomans, in the first decade and 1 million Tomans, in the second decade), Lele-Rud (200,000 Tomans, in the first decade, and one million five hundred thousand tomans, in the second decade), Sefidab (800 thousand tomans, in the first decade and one million tomans, in the second decade), Hassanaksara (400 thousand tomans, in the first decade and 700 thousand tomans, in the first decade), and the coastal margin of the villages of Oshian (100 thousand tomans, in the first decade and one million tomans, in the second decade), Qasim Abad Sofla (80 thousand toman, in the first decade and one million tomans, in the second decade), Qasim Abad Olia (700 thousands, in the first decade and one million tomans, in the second decade).
According to field visits, the average land price in the villages studied in the second decade has grown significantly compared to the first decade. Most of the increase in land prices is related to the villages of Hasankasra, Javaherdasht, Sajiran, Bazneshin Olia, Sarvelat, Jangsara, and Oshiyan. According to the results of quantitative statistics, 44.4% of local managers and rural people (45.8%), with an average of 3.84% and 3.94%, considered the impact of tourism on the increase in land and housing prices, respectively.
Tourism and construction of second homes
Due to the development of rural tourism and the increase in the number of second homes, land prices have risen sharply in the second decade, with Oshian, Qasim Abad Sofla, Qasim Abad Olia, and Jangsara experiencing the highest increase in land prices.
Villagers and local managers believe that the expansion of rural tourism in the villages under study has led to increased land sales and housing and consequently increased land and housing prices from the second decade (2006-2016). The construction of jobs in the rural areas under study created through tourism that build and utilize indigenous forces in occupations such as construction, carpentry, stone work, gardening, carpentry and purchasing materials from the area. .
Villages such as Javaherdasht, Sajiran, Sarvelat, Bazneshin olia, Oshyan, Qasem Abad Sofla had the most construction among the sample villages. Regarding the impact of second homes on income growth, 41.2%, compared to the results of the survey from the viewpoint of rural people was 45.8%. From the point of view of local managers and rural people, the impact of second homes construction was an average of 3.01% and the average of 3.45%, respectively, which shows the role of tourism in the construction of second homes and increasing the income of the villagers.
Tourism and boom in local products and handicrafts
Increasing employment and motivation for economic activities, creating more and more jobs for rural residents alongside agricultural work, reducing rural migration to urban areas and rural women employment in handicrafts have been the signs of increased employment in rural tourism. The boom in sales of agricultural products and handicrafts with an average of (3.69) and (3.54), respectively and rental villas and sanitation projects in coastal villages and foothills have had a significant impact on the villagers’ income and economy.
Conclusion and suggestions
Investigating the role of tourism in the economic development of rural areas of Rudsar County showed that Rudsar has many potentials that could contribute to the economic development of rural areas. In all the villages under study, employment has grown in the tourism sector, with most of the occupations in such areas as (real estate consultants, renting villas, workshops and small-scale industries, housing complexes, grocery stores, handicrafts stores, rural visiting units, etc.)
Based on the results of the present study, the effects of rural tourism have been able to improve rural environment, economic prosperity of rural people, which serve as an effective strategy to promote job diversification and increase their welfare level. To achieve better results, the following suggestions are given:
Planning for adhering to the principles of rural construction in the area under the study and to prevent unauthorized constructions.
Introducing and selling agricultural and livestock products and handicrafts and establishing local markets to sell the products
Supporting the employment of rural youths, especially in tourism-related services.
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