عنوان مقاله [English]
Nature tourism With increasing development, is one of the pillars of the economy and the main sector of investment in the world. Iran, with abundant natural resources, is one of the five countries that have highest environmental and geographical diversity in the world.This study has determined the development model of nature tourism in Iran. The research method in this study is qualitative and a kind of study called Meta Synthesis. Library method has been used to collect data. The study population is all research related to the field of nature tourism, which was conducted between 2000 until 2020 Year that was obtained by searching the databases Scopus, Civilica, SID, IRANDOC, IEEE, ISC, Emerald, Science Direct, as well as Googlescholar. based on the evaluations Among the 1523 identified studies, 7 case of them were evaluated and interpreted. Based on this, 45 reference codes were identified, That whit By combining them, 13 themes are included in the form of 6 main categoriesIncluded: The attractiveness of the tourism region, the participation and cohesion of nature tourism stakeholders, the support of nature tourism governance, cultural factors, nature tourism marketing management and educational-cultural policies have been determined, That presented as a model for the development of nature tourism in Iran. attention to the results and identified factors resulting from this study can be a basis for managers and decision makers in the field of nature tourism in order to plan for the development and expansion of this industry in the country.
Keywords: Model, Development, Nature Tourism, Meta Synthesis
Nature tourism become an important economic activity in natural areas around the world. This activity provides opportunity for visitors to experience the manifestations of nature and culture, and understand the importance of protecting biodiversity and local cultures (Drum & Moore, 2002: 2). Increasing development of nature tourism has made one of the pillars of the economy main sectors of investment in the world (Khaledi et al: 2015: 94). Iran Country , despite unique climate diversity(Faaljou & Nasirian, 2015: 26), and great potential in the field of nature tourism (Sarkhosh Sara et al, 2018: 2) hasnt achieved true place in the industry In a way Until 1398, the country has managed to register only two natural heritage sites of Lut Desert and Hyrcanian forests in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Therefore, in order to take advantage of Iran's nature tourism capacities, more detailed studies in this field are important.
The aim of this study is fundamental, and the method used in it qualitative, of Meta Synthesis type. In the Meta Synthesis The researcher needs to thorough depth review of the documents under study and combine previous research with each other. The method collection data is library and the population studied are all research related to the field of nature tourism, which took place between 2000 and 2020, years,that have been extracted by searching the scientific databases inside and outside the country. Following the research, based on the process and pattern of Barso and Sandloski, the studies were determined and then all the factors extracted from the studies were identified as code, which, considering the meaning of each of these codes, put them in a similar concept (theme). Categorize to form research concepts and categories.
Among the 1523 identified research topics, based evaluations 7 of them were identified, interpreted and analyzed on the related to this study. Therefore, 45 referral codes were identified, that combined 13 of themes , 6 main categories, including the attractiveness of the tourist area, participation and cohesion of nature tourism stakeholders, support for nature tourism governance, cultural factors, nature tourism marketing management and educational policies. Cultural, has been determined, that presented as a model for the development of nature tourism in Iran.
Due to the importance of nature tourism in development the economic, social and cultural of Iran, this study was conducted to present the development model of nature tourism in Iran. In this study by searching among domestic and foreign publications, 1523 articles on tourism were examined. Using the Meta Synthesis method and based on the model of Barso and Sandloski, with the subject and method of this research, only 7 of them were consistent They were excluded from the analysis process. Given that each of these studies pointed to aspects of the development of nature tourism, in order to summarize their results, by classifying, interpreting and analyzing codes, new categories are presented in the form of factors affecting the development of nature tourism.
One of the factors in the development of nature tourism in Iran, that is determined in this model, is the marketing management of nature tourism with the dimensions of advertising and information. Marketing and advertising play an important role in stimulating consumer experience in nature tourism services. Because understanding experience in the field of marketing is a new concept that has evolved over the last few decades from the concepts of production, sales, marketing, social marketing, and marketing related to the concept of experience-based marketing.
Educational and cultural policies with dimensions of cultural and educational mechanisms are among the factors affecting the development of tourism in Iran, which is specified in this model. In this regard, it can be said that culture building through formal and informal methods of education and changing the orientation of the education system and good governance as an efficient policy system are two practical approaches to move towards sustainable tourism development.
Welfare factors with the dimensions of facilities and infrastructures, economic facilities are other factors to development of nature tourism in Iran, which has been identified in this study. Residential infrastructure is one of the most important components of tourism space system, so that the quantity and quality of infrastructure is effective in attracting tourists.
participation and coherence of tourism stakeholders with the dimensions of cohesion is one of the factors to development of nature tourism in Iran, which was determined in this study. People's participation in decision-making and policy-making is important in order to familiarize them with the obstacles and benefits of the nature tourism industry. People's participation is also one of the indicators of development. Because community-based tourism is associated with the protection of the natural environment and resources and the development of nature tourism.
The attractiveness of the tourist area with the dimensions of location, side factors in the areas, natural attractiveness are other factors affecting the development of nature tourism. The attractiveness of destinations plays a decisive role in the potential tourism position in any region. Because nature tourism depends on the attractiveness of the environment. So that the attractiveness and sense of place is considered as a factor in repeating the tourism experience.
in B. Weiler and C.M. Hall (Eds) Special Interest Tourism. Belhaven Press: London