بنیان‌های ژئوپلیتیکی سیاست خارجی جمهوری‌اسلامی‌ایران با ترکیه از دیدگاه سازه‌انگاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله های برگرفته از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

3 استاد گروه علوم سیاسی و روابط بین المل دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

چکیده

       از مهمترین مسئولیت‌های هر کشوری تنظیم روابط خارجی خود با دیگر کشورها از طریق سیاست خارجی است  و در این بین از مهمترین متغیرهای مؤثر در شکل‌گیری خط‌مشی سیاست خارجی کشورها، بنیان‌های ژئوپلیتیک می‌باشد. جمهوری­اسلامی­ایران نیز بواسطۀ همجواری با مناطق ژئوپلیتیکی و ژئواستراتژیکی متعدد می‌بایست از این بنیان­ها برای دستیابی به اهداف و منافع ‌ملی حداکثری در سیاست‌ خارجی خود استفاده کند. در بهره­برداری از این بنیان­ها، بناچار در بعضی از مناطق با دیگر کشورها بویژه با کشورهای همسایه، تناقضات و تضادهایی در برخی موارد پیش می­آید. در این میان یکی از کشورهایی که اقدامات و سیاست­های آن برای جمهوری­اسلامی­ایران همواره مهم و تأثیرگذار بوده است، ترکیه می­باشد. این کشور به عنوان یکی از مهمترین بازیگران و همسایگان ایران در منطقه جنوب‌غرب‌آسیا، برای دستیابی به اهداف و منافع‌ملی در سیاست‌ خارجی خود همواره با جمهوری­اسلامی­ایران در رقابت بوده و دستیابی به منافع ملی در منطقه این دو کشور را مجبور به برقراری ارتباط (تعامل– تقابل) در زمینه‌های مختلف کرده­است و این مسئله لزوم بررسی روابط دو کشور را دوچندان می‌کند. پژوهش حاضر از نظر روش­شناسی توصیفی ـ تحلیلی بوده و از نظر نوع تحقیق، کاربردی محسوب می­گردد. مهم­ترین بنیان‌های ژئوپلیتیکی مؤثر بر سیاست خارجی جمهوری­اسلامی­ایران در ارتباط با ترکیه عبارتند از: نحوۀ ارتباط دو کشور با آمریکا و اسرائیل، رقابت در آسیای مرکزی و قفقاز، مسئلۀ کُردها، ژئوپلیتیک شیعه و نحوۀ واکنش به تحولات منطقه از جمله عراق و سوریه است. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد متناسب با سیاست‌های اتخاذی هر دو کشور در منطقه، جمهو‌ری‌اسلامی‌ایران  برای دستیابی به منافع ملی حداکثری، روابطی از طیف تعاملی تا رقابتی را نسبت به ترکیه انتخاب کرده است.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitical foundations of the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran with Turkey From a constructivist approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arash Soltani 1
  • Afshin Mottaqi Dastnaei 2
  • reza Simbar 3
1 Ph.D. Student of in Political Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate assistant Professor, Department of Political Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
3 - Associate Professor, Department of Political Science and International Relations, Gilan University, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

One of the most important responsibilities of any country is to regulate its foreign relations with other countries through foreign policy, and in the meantime, one of the most important variables influencing the formation of foreign policy is the geopolitical foundations. The Islamic Republic of Iran, due to its proximity to various geopolitical and geostrategic regions, must use these foundations to achieve maximum national goals and interests in its foreign policy. In exploiting these foundations, in some areas with other countries, especially with neighboring countries, contradictions and contrast occur in some cases. Meanwhile, one of the countries whose actions and policies have always been important and effective for the Islamic Republic of Iran is Turkey. As one of the most important players and neighbors of Iran in the region of Southwest Asia, this country has always been in competition with the Islamic Republic of Iran to achieve national goals and interests in its foreign policy and has to establish national interests in the region of these two countries And Communication (interaction-confrontation) has taken place in various fields, and this issue doubles the need to study the relations between the two countries. The present research is descriptive-analytical in terms of methodology and is applied in terms of the type of research. The geopolitical foundations influencing the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in relation to Turkey are: how the two countries relate to the United States and Israel, competition in Central Asia and the Caucasus, the Kurdish issue, Shiite geopolitics and how to respond to regional developments including Iraq and Syria. Findings show that in accordance with the policies adopted by both countries in the region, the Islamic Republic of Iran has chosen relations from the interactive to competitive spectrum to Turkey in order to achieve maximum national interests.
Extended Abstract
Introduction:
One of the most important responsibilities of any country is to regulate its foreign relations with other countries through foreign policy, and among these, geopolitical foundations are one of the most important variables in shaping the foreign policy of countries. How the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran is influenced by the geopolitical foundations and how to use these components for greater dynamism and efficiency in relation to Turkey is the main issue of the present study. The Islamic Republic of Iran needs to establish relations with other countries, especially neighboring countries, in order to influence regional developments and secure national interests and increase security in the national and global dimensions. Meanwhile, Turkey, as one of the most important players in the region of Southwest Asia, seeks to increase its geopolitical sphere of influence in the region to achieve its national goals and interests. Therefore, the present study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the geopolitical relations between the two countries and to extract the geopolitical components affecting the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in relation to Turkey.
Methodology:
       The present research is considered descriptive-analytical methodology and applied in terms of research type. The method of collecting data and information of this research is documentary-library and by studying the available books, articles and dissertations as well as internet resources. After collecting and classifying information, their analysis has been done through descriptive and based on thinking, logic and reasoning.
 
Results and discussion:
 
Central Asia and the Caucasus
The limited possibilities and new opportunities created by the developments in Central Asia have caused the relations between Iran and Turkey in the region to tend towards a kind of confrontation and competition from the beginning of the emergence of new states in this region, so that the elements and dimensions This competition prevents the formation of a central nucleus consisting of two regional powers, namely Iran and Turkey, in the Central Asian region and the Caucasus. In this regard, the obstacles to convergence between Iran and Turkey in this region are mostly around the three main aspects, namely ideological, geopolitical (confrontation of regional maps) and finally economic competition, crystallized and concentrated.
United States of America                                                                                                                                    One of the factors that has seriously influenced the construction of the geopolitical structure governing Turkish-Iranian relations is the changing subject of the United States and the type of relationship and Ankara's view of Tehran based on Washington's considerations that have led to the formation of perceptions and actions in the minds. Iranian officials. In recent years, despite numerous disagreements with Washington, Ankara has maintained a special position for the United States in its foreign policy and has tried not to confront the country directly. However, the Islamic Republic of Iran has a strategic difference with the United States based on the norms and identities derived from the Islamic Revolution, and this has a significant impact on the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in relation to countries such as Turkey, which is a strategic ally of the United States.
Israel
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, despite the stability of some influential factors in foreign policy, the foreign policy of this country towards Israel underwent a fundamental change. Among Iran's neighbors, Turkey has established extensive political, scientific, military, intelligence, and trade relations with Israel over the past decades. Meanwhile, one of the most important concerns of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Middle East is how Turkey relations with Israel. Turkish-Israeli cooperation in the region is very crucial for Iran. It can be said that if Turkey and Israel converge in the region, we will see tension in Iran-Turkey relations and also the beginning of insecurity in the region. Conversely, if the two countries diverge, the positions of Iran and Turkey will become closer and will also see a reduction in conflicts between countries in the region.
Iraq                                                                                                                                                         The Islamic Republic of Iran, as one of Iraq's most important and influential neighbors, has more opportunities than its other regional rivals. Another influential country in the developments in Iraq is Turkey, which has a more security approach to Iraq. The process of forming a government in Iraq after the US occupation turned into a rivalry between Ankara and Tehran. Both countries competed to secure their friendship with the central government in Baghdad and other influential actors in Iraqi politics. However, the old security concerns of Turkey and Iran, which stemmed from the potential independence of a Kurdish country, led them to put aside their differences and rivalry and participate in joint efforts to contain the common threat.
Syria
Due to its special geopolitical position, Syria has always been considered by the centers of power in the international system. With the onset of the Arab Spring in the region, Iran and Turkey apparently had similar views. Over time, their strategic and ideological differences led to competition between the two countries. The prolongation of the crisis and, as a result, the complication of its dimensions, have led to an increasing conflict of interests among the actors involved in the crisis. Each of these actors pursues different policies and actions depending on their identity and interests.
Conclusion:               
Geopolitics has played a vital role in Turkish-Iranian relations throughout history; In this regard, it can be said that components such as relations with the United States and Israel, NATO, the Central Asian region and the Caucasus, the Alawite debate in Turkey, Shiite geopolitics and the issue of Pan-Turkism have led to the divergence of their relations; And in issues such as the Kurdish issue, Iran's nuclear program and security developments in the region, especially developments in neighboring countries, relations between the two countries have been convergent and interactive. In periods when Turkey's relations with the above-mentioned countries were friendly and warm, such as Turkey's membership in NATO and the establishment of political and economic relations with them, and due to their hostile relations with Iran, the Islamic Republic of Iran's foreign policy towards Turkey became competitive and divergent. This is in complete contradiction with the geopolitical codes of both countries (foreign policy and national interests). Islamic Iran had a friendly and convergent relationship. Therefore, it can be said that as long as economic, geopolitical, political and ideological motives are evident in the relations between the two countries, competition will play an important principle in the behavior pattern of the two countries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Geopolitical Foundations"
  • "Foreign Policy"
  • "Islamic Republic of Iran"
  • "Turkey"
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دوره 12، شماره 45 - شماره پیاپی 45
برنامه ریزی منطقه ای
اردیبهشت 1401
صفحه 109-122
  • تاریخ دریافت: 12 خرداد 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 19 مرداد 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 19 مرداد 1399
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 اردیبهشت 1401